Bob Cropf

Who was Milton Friedman?

In economics, Free-market on February 9, 2009 at 12:49 PM

The New York Review of Books published this article in 2007, a year after Friedman went to the Great Free Market in the sky. Not only does the author, Nobel Prize-winning economist, Paul Krugman, do a good job in summarizing Friedman’s contribution to economics, he also does a nice job in recapping the history of post-war US economic policy. Read this and go back and watch the Charlie Rose interview of Friedman.

Krugman makes the point that Friedman was the anti-Keynes in his fervent belief in the power of the free market, free from government intervention. He also notes that Friedman, the economist, was a formidable force. He, for example, predicted the effects of stagflation before they actually occurred. However, according to Krugman, the man was also a polemicist for capitalism and monetarism. The latter, Krugman says, is a highly technocratic, apolitical form of government intervention in the economy. On the other hand, fiscal policy which actually requires political debate and decisionmaking, and is, therefore, inherently more democratic, is viewed by monetarists as an inferior type of intervention. Friedman was deeply skeptical of government’s role in the economy, going so far as to say in an 1976 interview, “the elementary truth is that the Great Depression was produced by government mismanagement.” In truth, the government under-managed the economy into a catastrophic depression.

Krugman’s final observations regarding Friedman are telling:

In the long run, great men are remembered for their strengths, not their weaknesses, and Milton Friedman was a very great man indeed—a man of intellectual courage who was one of the most important economic thinkers of all time, and possibly the most brilliant communicator of economic ideas to the general public that ever lived. But there’s a good case for arguing that Friedmanism, in the end, went too far, both as a doctrine and in its practical applications. When Friedman was beginning his career as a public intellectual, the times were ripe for a counterreformation against Keynesianism and all that went with it. But what the world needs now, I’d argue, is a counter-counterreformation.


  1. The most striking line for me was:

    “I don’t want to push the religious analogy too far. Economic theory at least aspires to be science, not theology; it is concerned with earth, not heaven.”

    I am not sure all who are making economic policy have gotten that memo, nor even all economists because there is a frequently call to have “faith in the free market,” which combined with the general lack of interest in the empirical analysis of bang-for-the-buck government expenditures, really indicate that we are not operating in the realm of (social) science but in ideology and, yes, even theology in which The Market is god.

  2. Critics of Marxism would refer to as “the god that failed.” Maybe the market is another god that failed.

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